Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin found in wine has the potential to impact a variety of human diseases. Resveratrol like other polyphenols activates many of the same intracellular pathways as those activated by caloric restriction. It can quench reactive oxidative species, ROS and induce eNOS and iNOS expression. Resveratrol also can activate SIRT1, a NAD⁺-dependent deacetylase, that leads an improved in mitochondrial function, and then this procedure turns to activate the transcription factor Nrf2 that coordinates expression of key antioxidant mechanisms by binding to the antioxidant response elements. Resveratrol provides cardioprotection by triggering preconditioning and inducing autophagy. It also presents chemical similarities with estrogen and was reported to activate both nuclear and extranuclear estrogen receptors. Resveratrol treatment alleviated diabetes-induced cardiovascular system disorders via different endogeneous signaling pathways including oxidative stress/antioxidant defense system, glucose/insulin metabolism, overexpression of iNOS/nitrotyrosine, and preconditioning. Resveratrol treatment significantly reduced the blood glucose level in STZ-treated type 1 diabetic animals through insulin-dependent and insulin-independent pathways. Resveratrol triggers some of the similar intracellular insulin signalling components in myocardium such as eNOS, AKT through the AMPK pathway, and plays an essential role in Glut-4 translocation and glucose uptake in STZ-induced diabetic myocardium. However, resveratrol can exhibit hormetic action expressing health benefits at lower doses whereas being detrimental at higher doses. It might also exert antidiabetic effects by activating SIRT1 directly in the brain. This review includes a summary of the role of resveratrol and diabetic cardiac function including a brief discussion on in vitro and in vivo studies as well as our original observations in diabetic rats.
Source: J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2012 Apr;44(2):281-96.